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积极稳妥推进电力(li)市(shi)场化交易(yi) 扩大市(shi)场主体范围

日期:2018-07-30     来源:经济日报

    煤炭(tan)、钢(gang)铁、有(you)色、建材4个行(xing)业(ye)(ye)在电(dian)力体制改革(ge)过程(cheng)中已经参与了市(shi)(shi)场化交易(yi),市(shi)(shi)场意(yi)识较(jiao)强,市(shi)(shi)场经验(yan)丰富,试点(dian)全(quan)面放开(kai)发用电(dian)计(ji)划具有(you)较(jiao)好基(ji)础。通过先(xian)行(xing)先(xian)试,有(you)利于充分(fen)还原电(dian)力商品属性,理顺和打(da)通电(dian)力及其上下游行(xing)业(ye)(ye)的价格市(shi)(shi)场化形成机制,形成全(quan)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)链价格联(lian)动、利益共享(xiang)、风险(xian)共担协同发展格局。

    国(guo)家发(fa)(fa)展改革(ge)委(wei)、国(guo)家能源局近日印(yin)发(fa)(fa)《关于积极推(tui)进(jin)电(dian)力市场化(hua)交(jiao)(jiao)易(yi)进(jin)一步(bu)完善交(jiao)(jiao)易(yi)机制(zhi)的(de)通(tong)知》,要求各(ge)地进(jin)一步(bu)提高(gao)市场化(hua)交(jiao)(jiao)易(yi)电(dian)量规模,加(jia)快放开发(fa)(fa)用(yong)电(dian)计划(hua),扩(kuo)大市场主体范围,积极推(tui)进(jin)各(ge)类(lei)市场主体参与电(dian)力市场化(hua)交(jiao)(jiao)易(yi)。

    深化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)电(dian)(dian)(dian)力市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)改(gai)革(ge)事关我(wo)国能源安全(quan)和经济社会发展全(quan)局。自(zi)2015年(nian)新一轮电(dian)(dian)(dian)力体(ti)制改(gai)革(ge)启(qi)动以来,我(wo)国电(dian)(dian)(dian)力市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)建设(she)取得了积极进(jin)展,逐步建立了规(gui)则明确、组织有序(xu)、形式多样、主体(ti)多元(yuan)的市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)交易(yi)(yi)体(ti)系。据统计(ji)(ji),2017年(nian),各地签订直接交易(yi)(yi)年(nian)度(du)、月度(du)合同(tong)以及平台集中(zhong)交易(yi)(yi)合同(tong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)量,加上跨省区市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)交易(yi)(yi)、发电(dian)(dian)(dian)权交易(yi)(yi)等其他(ta)交易(yi)(yi)品种,累计(ji)(ji)完成市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)交易(yi)(yi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)量1.63万亿千瓦时,同(tong)比(bi)增长45%,占全(quan)社会用电(dian)(dian)(dian)量比(bi)重(zhong)约26%,千瓦时电(dian)(dian)(dian)平均降价约5分。今年(nian)上半年(nian),市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)交易(yi)(yi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)量累计(ji)(ji)突破8000亿千瓦时,同(tong)比(bi)增长24.6%。

    在此基础上,加快(kuai)推进电(dian)(dian)力市(shi)场(chang)(chang)化交易既是顺势而为,更(geng)是深(shen)化改革所需。《通知》提出(chu)进一步加大力度(du)推动发(fa)用电(dian)(dian)计划放开,发(fa)电(dian)(dian)侧除了(le)清(qing)洁能(neng)源、调节性电(dian)(dian)源等(deng)优先(xian)(xian)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)之(zhi)外,用户侧除了(le)居民、农业(ye)、重要公用事(shi)业(ye)和公益性服务等(deng)优先(xian)(xian)购(gou)电(dian)(dian)之(zhi)外,其(qi)他(ta)经营性发(fa)用电(dian)(dian)都应(ying)放开,同时(shi)积极鼓励符合条件的(de)优先(xian)(xian)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)企业(ye)、优先(xian)(xian)购(gou)电(dian)(dian)用户参与(yu)市(shi)场(chang)(chang)。

    为(wei)确保(bao)电(dian)力市(shi)场(chang)化交易比(bi)重有明显提(ti)高,《通知(zhi)》决定选择煤炭(tan)、钢(gang)铁、有色、建材4个行业(ye)电(dian)力用(yong)户,率先(xian)全面放开(kai)发(fa)用(yong)电(dian)计划试(shi)点(dian),并据(ju)(ju)此制定了(le)相关实施方案。之所以选择这4个行业(ye)作为(wei)新(xin)的改革突破(po)口和(he)着力点(dian),是因为(wei)这些行业(ye)的市(shi)场(chang)化程度(du)较高,在电(dian)力体制改革过(guo)(guo)程中已经参与了(le)市(shi)场(chang)化交易,市(shi)场(chang)意识较强(qiang),市(shi)场(chang)经验(yan)丰(feng)富(fu),试(shi)点(dian)全面放开(kai)发(fa)用(yong)电(dian)计划具有较好基础。通过(guo)(guo)先(xian)行先(xian)试(shi),有利于充分还(hai)原电(dian)力商品属性,理顺(shun)和(he)打通电(dian)力及其上下游行业(ye)的价(jia)格市(shi)场(chang)化形成机制,形成全产业(ye)链价(jia)格联动(dong)、利益共享、风险共担协同发(fa)展格局(ju)。据(ju)(ju)初步分析,这4个行业(ye)用(yong)户全面放开(kai)后可(ke)增加(jia)市(shi)场(chang)化交易电(dian)量3500亿千(qian)瓦时,可(ke)以使市(shi)场(chang)化交易电(dian)量占(zhan)全社会(hui)用(yong)电(dian)量的比(bi)例(li)提(ti)高5个百(bai)分点(dian)。

    如果说,选择重(zhong)点行(xing)业全面放开发用电(dian)(dian)计划是重(zhong)要举(ju)措(cuo),完善(shan)价(jia)格形(xing)(xing)成机制(zhi)则是重(zhong)要目标。为(wei)确(que)保电(dian)(dian)力市(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)交(jiao)易的有序(xu)、规范(fan),实现改革平稳推进,《通知》提出了以完善(shan)市(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)交(jiao)易价(jia)格调整(zheng)机制(zhi)为(wei)核心(xin)的一整(zheng)套相关机制(zhi)设(she)计,鼓励交(jiao)易双(shuang)方签订中长(zhang)期市(shi)(shi)场(chang)化(hua)(hua)交(jiao)易合同(tong)(tong),在(zai)自主自愿、平等(deng)协商的基(ji)础上,在(zai)合同(tong)(tong)中约定建立固定价(jia)格、“基(ji)准电(dian)(dian)价(jia)+浮(fu)动(dong)机制(zhi)”、随(sui)电(dian)(dian)煤价(jia)格、产品价(jia)格联动(dong)或随(sui)其他因素调整(zheng)等(deng)多种形(xing)(xing)式的市(shi)(shi)场(chang)价(jia)格形(xing)(xing)成机制(zhi),分散(san)和(he)降低市(shi)(shi)场(chang)风险(xian)。

    值(zhi)得强调的是,《通知》明确了(le)“兜底(di)(di)保供(gong)”的工作重点。在(zai)改(gai)革推进(jin)过程中,要(yao)求务必坚持积极稳妥的原则,保障用(yong)(yong)户(hu)安全(quan)可靠供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)不受影响,绝不允(yun)许因进(jin)入电(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)市场导致用(yong)(yong)户(hu)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)中断的情况(kuang)发(fa)生(sheng)。电(dian)(dian)(dian)网企(qi)(qi)业要(yao)承担保底(di)(di)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)责(ze)任,对暂(zan)未能(neng)与发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)企(qi)(qi)业签(qian)订直接交易(yi)合同的电(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)户(hu),以及已参加市场化交易(yi)又退出的电(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)用(yong)(yong)户(hu),提供(gong)保底(di)(di)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)服务,并按照相关政策规(gui)定(ding)收(shou)取电(dian)(dian)(dian)费。此(ci)外,为(wei)保证(zheng)改(gai)革平稳实施,文件下发(fa)后,各地可设置过渡期。过渡期内,允(yun)许放开发(fa)用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)计(ji)划的用(yong)(yong)户(hu)仍执行目(mu)录(lu)(lu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)价(jia),发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)企(qi)(qi)业电(dian)(dian)(dian)价(jia)按目(mu)录(lu)(lu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)价(jia)扣减(jian)输(shu)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)价(jia)、政府性基金及附(fu)加确定(ding)。

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